Saturday, May 28, 2011

Giving improper names to Muslims

Giving improper names to a Muslim or calling a Muslim an improper name given by others is not permissible. Rasulullah ‘sall-Allahu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadith-i-sharif: “A person who has an improper name should change it to a good name.” For example, the name ‘Asiya’ ought to be replaced with ‘Jamila’. It is permissible to give nice names to Muslims. Children should not be given eulogistic names such as Rashid and Amin. Names like Muhyiddin or Nuruddin would be fictitious and neulogistic (bid’at). It is an act of makruh to call sinners, ignoramuses and apostates with names of this sort, which are eulogistic and laudatory. Nor can they be used in their figurative subsenses. Some (Islamic scholars) expressed their deductions as to the vindicability of giving such names to your children for being blessed with the auspicious connotations inherent in their meanings. It is permissible and useful to use these names for those scholars who are renowned for their piety.

[Famous scholar Ibn al-Abidin ‘rahimahullahu ta’ala’ states in the fifth fascicle of his book Radd-ul-Muhtar that the best and most proper names for Muslim children are Abdullah, then Abdurrahman, then Muhammad, then Ahmad and then Ibrahim in the order of priority. It is also permissible to give names of Allahu ta’ala such as Ali, Rashid, ’Aziz. However, names of this level will have be uttered with due reverence. A person who knowingly shows disrespect while mentioning these names becomes a disbeliever. For example, saying “Abdulkoydur” instead of Abdulqadir, or “Hasso” instead of Hasan, or “Ibo” instead of Ibrahim would be degrading these names. Even though saying these words would not cause disbelief when one does not intend to degrade them, it is better to avoid using such words which would verge on disbelief. If a child dies immediately after birth, it should not be buried without giving a name. Even though the name ’Abdunnabi is permissible, it is better not to use it. Hadrat Sayyid Abdulhakim Arwasi ‘rahimahullahu ta’ala’ preached for twenty-five years after late afternoon prayer every Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday at the Bayazid mosque in Istanbul until he passed away in the year 1362 hijri qamari, [1943 A.D.] During one of his preaches he stated: “A child has three rights on his parents: giving a Muslim name at birth; teaching him reading/writing, knowledge (’ilm), and crafts upon reaching the age of discretion; and marrying him when he reaches the age of puberty.” Some degenerate people in Europe and America are raised in an irreligious and non-ethical manner and are given fake diplomas and scholarly titles and then sent to Islamic countries. These ignorant disbelivers are appointed to high schools and universities as teachers or professors. They trap Muslim children with their position and make them irreligious and non-madhhabite. These children influenced by them easily become murderers and traitors. Those parents who send their sons and daughters to these schools are throwing their children to the Hell with their own hands.]


The book Maktûbât (Letters), originally in the Fârisî language, consists of three volumes. It also contains a few letters in Arabic. An elaborate printing of the book was accomplished in 1393 [1973 A.D.] in Nâzimâbâd, Karachi, Pakistan. It was reproduced by offset process in Istanbul. A copy of the Fârisî version exists in the library of the university of Columbia in New York, U.S.A. Maktûbât was rendered into the Arabic language by Muhammad Murâd Qazânî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’, and the Arabic version was printed in two volumes in the printhouse called Mîriyya and located in the blessed city of Mekka in 1316. A copy of the Arabic version occupies number 53 in the municipality library at Bâyezid, Istanbul. It was reproduced by offset process in 1963, in Istanbul. A number of the books written by Hadrat Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ were reprinted in Karachi, Pakistan. Of those books, Ithbât-un-nubuwwa was reproduced by offset process in Istanbul in 1394 [1974 A.D.]. The marginal notes on the book, which is in Arabic, provide a biography of Hadrat Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’. In the following section we shall present an abridgement from the biography. People who would like to know Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ more closely and with more detail would have to read the Fârisî book Umdat-ul-maqâmât, by Khwâja Muhammad Fadlullah, and the book Barakât, by Muhammad Hâshim Badahshî. The latter one, also in the Fârisî language and reproduced by offset in Istanbul, is of great help for the acquisition of stronger ikhlâs and more conscientious îmân.
(Muhammad Murâd Qazânî was born in the Ufa town of the Qazan (Kazan) city of Russia in 1272. Completing his madrasa education in his hometown, he went to Bukhârâ in 1293 [1876 A.D.]. He studied higher Islamic sciences in Bukhâra and Tashkend, and went to India and thence to Hijâz in 1295. He carried on his education in the blessed city of Medîna, and attained a certain degree in Tasawwuf as well. In 1302 he translated the book Rashahât and then the book Maktûbât into Arabic. He also wrote a biography of Imâm Rabbânî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ in Arabic).
Muhammad Murâd Munzâwî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ was another scholar. He did not translate Maktûbât into Arabic.
There are various ways to learn the facts about past people; how they were, their knowledge and ignorance, their guidance and aberration, etc. The first way is, for instance, if they founded a madhhab or a regime, to study the institution they founded. The second way is to read their works, books. The third way is to hear people who are unprejudiced about them and who mention their merits and imperfections objectively. Now we will study Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ from these three viewpoints:
1– Imâm-i-Rabbânî, mujaddid wa munawwir alf-i-thânî, Ahmad ibn Abd-il-Ahad, has an ancestral chain that reaches back to the Amîr-ul-mu’minîn ’Umar-ul-Fârûq ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ with the twenty-ninth paternal link. All his grandfathers were pious and virtuous people, and each of them was a greatest scholar of his time.
2– Implicit and indirect good news herald a person’s advent before he is born. Adumbration of this sort does not clearly name the person himself or his birthplace. An example is the news foretelling the advent of Mahdî. The occasional false pretensions to the name of Mahdî in recent history were merely attempts to exploit this latency. The same rule applies to the news foretelling our religious leaders (imâms). Examples of such news are the following hadîth-i-sherîfs: “If the religion (Islam) fled the earth and went to [the cluster of stars called] the Pleiades, a youngster of Asiatic origin would apprehend it and bring it back.” “Men will get into insoluble trouble and look for a scholar to solve their problem. They will see that none is superior to the scholar (who will be living) in Medîna-i-munawwara.” “Do not speak ill of the Qoureishîs. A scholar of their descent will illuminate the entire world with knowledge.” Of these hadîth-i-sherîfs, the first one refers to Imâm a’zam Abû Hanîfa, (the founder and leader of the Hanafî Madhhab,) the second one alludes to Imâm Mâlik bin Enes, (the founder and leader of the Mâlikî Madhhab,) and the third one foretells the advent of Imâm Shâfi’î, (the founder and leader of the Shâfi’î Madhhab) ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhum ajma’în’, according to other Islamic scholars. All these conclusions, regardless of the authenticity of the facts they are based on, are of conjectural capacity and therefore they are not definite knowledge. Whereas they are identical with knowledge in the friend’s view, they aggravate the foe’s stubbornness and vulgarize the denier’s nescience. For, it is either moral laxity and ignominy or vulgar ignorance and recalcitrance to deny something in the face of the great number and the high status of the people who believe it. Such is the case with Wahhâbîs, who obstinately deny the hadîth-i-sherîfs, which we have quoted above, about our religious leaders (imâms). The same applies to the deniers of Mahdî, for in effect it means to deny the so many hadîth-i-sherîfs (concerning Mahdî). For this reason, (some) Islamic scholars say that a person who denies Mahdî becomes a disbeliever. By the same token, Jews and Christians deny Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’ although the good news about his advent is given in their holy books. We Muslims believe in him positively. Likewise, also, there are pieces of good news concerning Imâm Rabbânî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’, which are definite and positive facts in the view of his friends, although, by contrast, they exacerbate the denial and the obduracy of the enemy. The Believers’ faith is in their own favour, and the adversaries’ denial is at their own peril. In fact, a Believer ought to have a good opinion about another Believer, even though he is not someone he knows well.
Would it not, then, be wiser by far to have a good opinion about the Awliyâ, who are praised in myriads of books and whose own books fill the entire world and whose followers have always been the most valued and beloved ones of their times and whose goodnesses shine far and near with solar brightness?

3– Our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ stated, “Of my Ummat (Muslims), there will come someone nicknamed Sila. Through his shafâ’at (intercession with Allâhu ta’âlâ for the slaves), many people will enter Paradise.” This hadîth-i-sherîf is written in the book Jam’ul-jawâmî, by Imâm Suyûtî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’. Providing an extensive explanation for the Awliyâ’s words on ‘Wahdat-i-wujûd’, Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ proved that they were compatible with Islam, and combined the two very vast Islamic oceans, i.e. the Ahkâm-i-islâmiyya (the Islamic principles, tenets, acts of worship, commandments and prohibitions, ritual practices, etc.), and Tasawwuf (knowledge pertaining to heart and soul; orders, paths, methods and techniques for the purification and improvement of the heart and soul), (which had hitherto been considered apart from each other). This won him the epithet Sila, (which means reunion; combiner). One of his letters ends with the prayer of thanksgiving, “May hamd (praise and gratitude) be to Allâhu ta’âlâ, who has made me a sila between two oceans!” He was known with this nickname among his companions. No one before him had won the epithet ‘Sila’, which exists literally in the hadîth-i-sherîf giving the good news. It is a fact in the sunlight that the epithet had been meant for Imâm Rabbânî. He who believes this will be beloved to him. Supposing his belief were wrong, neither in this world nor in the next would he be blamed for having had a good opinion about a Muslim.
Imâm Alî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ stated as follows, in versified narration:
The doctor and the naturalist supposed that when men
Die and decay, they will by no means come back to life.
Were your word to prove right, I would lose nothing;
Since I am right, in Hell will you spend the endless life.

4– Mawlânâ Jâmî ‘quddisa sirruh’, in his book Nafahât, quotes the Shaikh-ul-islâm Ahmad Nâmiqî Jâmî as having stated as follows: “I subjected myself to the total amount, and even more, of the mortifications and afflictions suffered by all the Awliya, and Allâhu ta’âlâ blessed me with all the spiritual states and goodnesses enjoyed by the Awliyâ. Every four hundred years Allâhu ta’âlâ blesses one of His slaves named Ahmad with such grand gifts, in such transparency as all people will see the gifts clearly.” There are four hundred and thirty-five (435) years between Ahmad Jâmî and Imâm (Ahmad) Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’, and throughout that period there was no other Walî with the name Ahmad and the same degree of greatness. In all likelihood, Imâm Rabbânî must have been the target of Ahmad Jâmî’s congratulatory innuendo ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anhum’. This presumption finds credence in another statement made, again, by the Shaikh-ul-islâm Ahmad Jâmî ‘quddisa sirruh’: “After me there will be seventeen people carrying my name. The last one, which is the greatest and the highest, will come after the first millennium (A.H.).”

5– Halîl-ul-Bedahshî ‘quddisa sirruh’ states: “Of the great scholars constituting the (chain of scholars called) Silsila-t-uz-zahab, there will come a paragon of perfection in India. He will be peerless in his century.” Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ is the ineluctable addressee of the implication in this statement, since India produced no other scholar in the same silsila.

6– Imâm Rabbânî Ahmad Fârûqî ‘quddisa sirruh’ was born in the city of Sihrind, situated on the route between Lahore and Delhi, India. ‘Sihrind’ means ‘black lion’. For, the city was first established by Sultân Fîrûz Shâh on a site that had formerly been a jungle of lions. It was not long after being born when Imâm Rabbânî caught an infantile disease. So his father took him to his own master Shâh Kemâl Kihtelî Qâdirî. “Don’t worry,” said the profoundly learned scholar. “This child prodigy is going to lead a long life and make a very great person.” Then he held the child by the hand and kissed him on the mouth. Upon this the fayz and nûr (light, haloe) of Abdulqâdir Geylânî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ pervaded his blessed body. He received his initial education from his father, learned Arabic, and memorized the Qur’ân al-kerîm in his early childhood. Possessed of a mellifluous voice, he recited the sûras like a nightingale singing. He memorized several booklets on various sciences and went to the city of Siyâlkût (Sialkot), where he studied some positive sciences and learned a great deal from Mawlânâ Kemâladdîn Kishmîrî ‘quddisa sirruh’, who was the highest scholar of his time and the great teacher who educated the renowned scholar Abdulhakîm Siyalkûtî. He received ijâzât[61] in Hadîth, in Tafsîr and in sciences of Usûl (methodology, procedures) from Qâdî Behlûl Bedahshânî, who was an ’âlim-i-rabbânî. He was only seventeen years old when he completed his education, in possession of ijâzât in all the branches of religious and positive sciences, as well as in sciences called Furû’ and Usûl. During his education, he received, through his father, the fayz and flavour in the hearts of the great men of Tasawwuf affiliated with the orders of Qâdirî and Cheshtî. His father was still alive when he already began to teach the disciples practical and spiritual sciences. In the meantime he wrote quite a number of books, among which are Risâla-t-ut-tehlîliyya, Risâla-t-ur-radd-ir-rawâfid, and Risâla-t-u-ithbât-un-nubuwwa (Proof of Prophethood). He was specially interested in belles-lettres. His eloquence, rhetoric, quickness of comprehension and great intelligence were objects of bewilderment for all the people around him.

7– With such superlative knowledge and unequalled spiritual perfection, his heart was burning with the love of the great guides of (the order of Tasawwuf called) Ahrâriyya. He was reading books written by the scholars of that path. A year after his father’s decease he left Sihrind for (a voyage to Mekka for the performance of the Islamic pilgrimage termed) hajj. Enroute to his destination, he called at Dehli, [i.e. Delhi,] and paid a visit to (the great spiritual master and scholar named) Muhammad Bâqî Billâh ‘quddisa sirruh’, who lived there. As soon as he entered the blessed sage’s presence, a nûr (light, haloe) shone up in his heart. He felt attracted, like a needle that was caught in a magnetic area. His heart became inundated with things unknown to him and which he had not heretofore heard of. He was going to come back after hajj and reap from the mellow spiritual source, yet the affection and the desire in his heart was too strong for him to wait that long. So the following morning he entered the great scholar’s presence again and extended his wish to attain the Ahrâriyya fayz. He remained there, in the blessed master’s service. Paying utmost attention to his own manners as well as to the perfectly adept guide’s words, he attached his heart to him. He preferred being with the owner of the Kâ’ba to going to the Kâ’ba. Exerting all his exclusively high talents and his well-endowed personality, he attained all sorts of perfections, which became manifest on his gifted person. So kind and magnanimous was his master’s compassionate concentration on him that it was hardly beyond two months’ time when he attained unprecedented spiritual realizations. A couple of months sufficed for him to become entitled to an unconditional authorization in the path of Ahrâriyya from his master, who ordered him to go back home thereafter, transferring most of his disciples to his care and sending them along to Sihrind. Back home, he began to spread zâhirî[62] and bâtinî[63] knowledge and nûrs to the world and to educate his disciples and students and guide them to spiritual heights. He was now an owner of universal reputation, and his own master joined in the influx of his admirers to reap spiritual lights from him. He would fill everybody’s heart with knowledge and haloes, and resuscitate and invigorate the religion of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’. His utterly effective letters would encourage the time’s pâdishâhs, governors, commanders and judges to rally to the cause of Islam and to hold fast to the Sunnat-i-saniyya. He would raise a great number of scholars and Awliyâ.

8– Although he had acquired the spiritual knowledge (’ilm-i-bâtin) from Muhammad Bâqî ‘quddisa sirruh’, Allâhu ta’âlâ conferred even more upon him. And even this exceptional knowledge, which was peculiar to him, he publicized worldover. His master also would come to attain pieces from that knowledge, enter his presence and sit with adab (suitable manners). It was on one of those occasions that his master came, sensed that his master-disciple was busy with his own heart, told the servant not to disturb him (Imâm Rabbânî), and did not enter the room, waiting silently at the door. Some time later Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ stood up and asked who was at the door. “It is this faqîr, Muhammad Bâqî,” called his master ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’. Upon hearing the name, Imâm Rabbânî ran to the door and welcomed his master humbly and with suitable manners. His master would always give him glad tidings, praise him in the presence of his acquaintances, and command his disciples to adapt themselves to Imâm Rabbânî after his decease.

9– Sayyid Muhammad Nu’mân ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’, a very great scholar and one of highest disciples of Khwâja Muhammad Bâqî ‘quddisa sirruh’, relates: When my teacher told me to adapt myself to Imâm Rabbânî (after his death), I tried to tell him that it would be unnecessary, saying, “The mirror of my heart will only be towards your bright heart.” My teacher retorted, “What do you think Ahmad is? His solar light outshines thousands of stars like us.”

10– Khwâja Muhammad Bâqî wrote as follows to some of his acquaintances, who were the greatest scholars of his time: A youngster came from the city of Sihrind. He has very much knowledge. And his behaviour perfectly reflects his knowledge. He stayed with this faqîr, (the great scholar means himself,) for a few days. I have seen much in him. I understand that he is going to be a sun that will enlighten the entire world. His relatives and all his brothers also are brilliant, valuable and knowledgeable heroes! And his sons, especially, are a treasure of Allâhu ta’âlâ each.

11– He said on another occasion: For the recent three or four years I have been exerting myself to guide others to the right path, to the way of salvation. Al-hamdulillah (May gratitude and praise be to Allâhu ta’âlâ)! My exertion has not come to naught, for a person like him has come out.

12– Khwâja Muhammad Bâqî ‘quddisa sirruh’ stated on another occasion: I brought this seed, which is a medicament for hearts and a cure for souls, from Samarkand and Bukhâra, and sowed it in the fertile soil of India. I spared no effort for the education and guidance of the disciples. When he surpassed all degrees and attained the highest grades of all sorts of perfection, I withdrew myself from between and left the disciples to his care.

13– In a letter that Khwâja Muhammad Bâqî Billâh ‘quddisa sirruh’ wrote to Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruhumâ’, he states as follows: “May Allâhu ta’âlâ bless you with the lot of attaining the highest grade and guiding all others as well! A line:
Earth has a share from the meal table of the beneficent!
“The unornamented truth is that the Shaikh-ul-islâm Abdullah Ansârî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ stated, ‘I was educated by Abul Hasan Harkânî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’. However, if Harkânî were alive now, he would ignore that he had been my teacher, come and kneel down before me.’ My inaction is not due to complacency or snub; on the contrary, I am awaiting a sign implying admission. This is the truth of the matter. May Allâhu ta’âlâ bless us with guidance! May He protect us from conceit and vanity! Sayyid Sâlih of Nishâpûr, who will be bringing you this letter of mine, came to me for the cure of his heart. Because I do not have time and I am not in a convenient state, I am sending him to you lest he should waste his time with me. Inshâ-Allah, he will attain your high and generous attention and obtain something proportional to his talents.

14– “May Allâhu ta’âlâ, for the sake of His beloved Awliyâ, whom He has chosen for Himself, guide also those wretched and impoverished mendicants of knowledge and sagacity, the hapless count-outs of all windfalls, and make them attain their wishes! I have been unable to present my true respect to your rank, which is a resource of Awliyâ. Yes, this is the only proper way of addressing oneself to a rank whose states are true to its name. To call you ‘my disciple’ would mean to display the most shameless insolence and to obscure the truth with the apparent contraposition. I request your benedictions, sir.”

15– In addition to his own master, most of the scholars and sages of his time mentioned his name with laudatory remarks that he perfectly deserved, refuted those who were uncivil enough to speak ill of him, and all of them gathered like moths around the light of his ma’rifat. The greatest and the most distinguished ones among them were Fadlullah Burhanpûrî, Mawlânâ Hasan-ul-ghawsî, Mawlânâ Abdulhakîm Siyâlkûtî, Mawlânâ Jemâladdîn Tâluwî, Mawlânâ Ya’qûb Sirfî, Mawlânâ Hasan-ul-Qubâdânî, Mawlânâ Mîrekshâh, Mawlânâ Mîr Mu’mîn, Mawlânâ Jân Muhammad Lâhurî and Mawlânâ Abd-us-salâm Diyukî. Muhaddith Abdulhaqq Dahlawî spent a greater part of his life criticizing him; however, when the mirror of his heart rid the rust and dust of his nafs so that the rays of that sun illuminated his heart, he began to praise him and to refute the slanders of the stubborn deniers.

16– Fadl Burhanpûrî, for instance, would take pleasure from listening to laudatory remarks about his beautiful attributes and enjoy hearing about his ma’rifats. He would say that he (Imâm Rabbânî) was the Qutb-ul-aqtâb, i.e. the imâm (religious leader, the highest scholar) of his time, that his reports about the secrets of truth were always right and valuable, and that his adherence to all the subtleties of the Islamic religion and his universal popularity attested to the fact that his words were true and to the high status of the spiritual states he were experiencing and displaying. During the Imâm’s ‘quddisa sirruh’ imprisonment, he would pray for his release after each of the five daily prayers of namâz. When people from the neighborhood of Sihrind came to him to express their wishes to become his disciples, he would rebuke them, saying, “So you live at a place close to Imâm Rabbânî and look for knowledge and ma’rifat at other places. Leaving the sun, you run to the stars for light. You astonish me.”

17– Hasan-ul-ghawsî would praise him very much. He writes as follows about the imâm in his book Manâqib-ul-awliyâ: “The owner of the rank of Mahbûbiyyat, the ornament of the chairmanship of the assembly of Wahdâniyyat, the expert of the rank of Ferdiyyat, and the chief of the rank of Qutbiyyat.”

18– Mawlânâ Abdulhakîm Siyâlkûtî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ was another admirer of Imâm Rabbânî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ who paid profound respect to the Imâm. He would struggle against his deniers. He would call him ‘Mujaddid-i-alf-i-thânî (Restorer of the Second Millennium). He is said (by the Islamic scholars) to have been the first person to call him this name. He would admonish the deniers, saying, “It is ignorance to raise objections to great people’s words without properly understanding what they mean. People who do so end up in perdition. To reject the words of Ahmad the master, who is a source of knowledge, fayz and irfân, stems from not knowing and understanding him.”

19– Muhammad Mu’min Kubrawî of Belh city sent one of his disciples to Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ for inâbat (repentance for sins), tawba (repentance and invocation for the forgiveness of sins, and resolution not to commit sins again), and sulûk (a term in Tasawwuf, which means ‘to enter a religious order; to make progress in one of the paths of Tasawwuf’). When the disciple entered Imâm Rabbânî’s presence, he conveyed the salâms which he brought from his master, from Sayyid Mîrekshâh, from Hasan Qubâdânî, and from Qâdil Qudât Tulek, and added: My master Mîr Muhammad Mu’min said, “I would go and be blessed with his lectures and serve him till death were it not for the hindrances such as my old age and the great distance. I would try to enlighten my heart with his nûrs, which have not fallen to anyone else’s lot. My body is far away, down here, yet my heart is up there. I beg him to accept this faqîr, (i.e. Muhammad Mu’min himself,) as if I were one of his pure disciples in his presence, and to scatter his blessed nûrs into my soul. Kiss his hand on my behalf, too!” The disciple kissed the Imâm’s hand again and, as he was leaving he said, “The blessed people in the city of Belh request of you to send them letters telling about sublime facts.” Upon this Imâm Rabbânî ‘qaddas-Allâhu sirrah-ul-’azîz’ wrote the ninety-ninth letter and gave it to him together with a few other letters. Some time later some devotees from Belh came to India with the report that upon receiving the Imâm’s ‘quddisa sirruh’ letter Mîr Muhammad Mu’min had read it with exuberant satisfaction and had said, “If great Awliyâ such as Bâyezîd the Sultân-ul-’ârifîn and Junayd the Sayyid-ut-tâifa were living now they would kneel down before Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ and not even for a moment would they be absent from his service.”

20– One of the scholars of his time said, “The share that falls to the comprehension of scholars from Imâm Rabbânî’s ‘quddisa sirruh’ writings is identical with whatsoever ignorant people understand from the (words of metaphysical level called) hikmat that they hear from the (deeply learned and wise scholars called) hakîm.”

21– Another pious scholar of his time, whose religious practices were in harmony with his religious knowledge, observed as follows: “Experts of knowledge pertaining to heart and soul do either tasnîf (composition) or te’lîf (compilation). Tasnîf means an ’ârif’s writing the occult and mysterical pieces of knowledge that are imparted to him (and inspired into his purified heart). And te’lîf means to compile others’ words, to arrange them in a self-established order and then write them. It has been a long time since the business of tasnîf has left the world, although te’lîf still survives. However, what Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ has been writing perfectly fall into the category of tasnîf. They are not te’lîf at all. I am not one of his disciples. Yet I have been studying his writings minutely, and for reason’s sake I have not so far found a single word belonging to others. All of them reflect his own kashfs (findings of the heart) and the pieces of knowledge flowing into his heart. All of them are sublime, acceptable, beautiful, and compatible with the Islamic religion.”

22– When the greatest qâdî (Islamic judge) of his time was asked about the (spiritual) states that Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ had been experiencing and displaying, he replied, “The words and the states of the scholars of the knowledge of heart and soul are beyond the capacity of our minds. However, when I saw the states of Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’, I developed a realization and comprehension of the states and the words of the past Awliyâ. Before that, whenever I read about the states of the (past) Awliyâ and their peculiar acts of worship, I speculated a certain degree of hyperbolism about the written accounts. Yet, seeing his states and manners eliminated my speculations and hesitations.”

23– Abdulhaqq Dahlawî, a scholar of Hadîth, was formerly opposed to Imâm Rabbânî’s ‘quddisa sirruh’ writings; he would despise them and write refutations to them. Later, however, Allâhu ta’âlâ blessed him with seeing the truth; penitent of his former attitude, he made tawba. He wrote to Mawlânâ Husâmaddîn Ahmad, one of the graduates of Khwâja Muhammad Bâqî, about his tawba, as follows: “May Allâhu ta’âlâ’ bless Ahmad-i-Fârûqî with (all sorts of) salvation! This faqîr’s (Hadrat Dahlawî’s) heart is now true towards him. Curtains of humanity have gone up, and the blemishes of the nafs have cleared. Aside from the spiritual solidarity, it stands to reason that a religious superior like him could not have been defied. How unwise and crass I must have been! No words I would say now would suffice to express the shame and inferiority that my heart feels towards him. It belongs to Allâhu ta’âlâ, alone, to convert hearts and to change spiritual states.” In another letter, which Abdulhaqq Dahlawî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ wrote to his own children, he said, “Tear the drafts of my letters which I wrote in opposition to the writings of Ahmad Fârûqî ‘sallamahullâhu ta’âlâ’! No longer is there any blur about him in my heart, which feels quite true towards him now.” This shows that his former opposition was merely human. It was the case also with all the other deniers. Jenâb-i-Haqq (Allâhu ta’âlâ) chooses some of His slaves and blesses them with His Compassion, saving them from the Hell of denial and guiding them to the Paradise of affirmation. The reasons for his tawba are not known for certain. According to some reports, he had a dream in which the Messenger of Allah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ reprimanded him. Some scholars say, on the other hand, that he drew lots on the Qur’ân al-kerîm, that once the âyat-i-kerîma which purports, “... If he is a liar, it is at his own peril. If he is telling the truth, Allâhu ta’âlâ will send onto you some of what He has promised to you,” came out, and that at another time the outcome was the âyat-i-kerîma which purports, “They are the beloved slaves of Allâhu ta’âlâ. Even in their business of buying and selling, their heart is not without Allâhu ta’âlâ in it.” According to a third report, the objections that he raised against him were consequent upon a letter that the adversaries of the blessed Imâm (Rabbânî) had sent to him, (i.e. to Abdulhaqq Dahlawî). When he realized the truth he repented and made tawba.

A note: When his children received their father’s letter, they destroyed the drafts. Yet other people also had had letters from him, (which contained his former opinions about Imâm Rabbânî). Those letters still existed in a few books written in Persian. However, beautiful refutations were written to those letters. Short biographies of the scholars who praised Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ would make up an entire book.

24– THE FIFTH PERSPECTIVE: When a person rises to fame owing to his virtues and perfections, a concomitant increase in jealousy follows. This has been the case since (the first man and the earliest prophet) Âdam ‘alaihis-salâm’. The jealousy of the ignorant is symptomatic of the abundance of the blessings possessed by the envied person. Our Master, the Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ states: “Of all people, prophets ‘alaihim-us-salâtu wa-s-salâm’, suffer the most disasters; next after them are scholars and then come the sâlih (pious, devoted) Muslims.” For that matter, Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ had a considerable share from disasters. How could it have been otherwise, since he was the mujaddid-i-alf-i-thânî? In other words, Allâhu ta’âlâ had sent him a thousand years after the Prophet, our Master ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’, as a restorer to rehabilitate and strengthen the Islamic religion. Is it an easy job to rehabilitate something, to restore it to its pristine purity, and to undo all the so many superstitions that have become established customs throughout years? Would it have been a simple fait accompli to strengthen Islam and purge it from the deeply rooted impurities at a time when wrongdoings, heresies and superstitions are on the increase, aberrations so widespread, and sham dervishes of Wahdat-i-wujûd are known as Islamic scholars?

25– Mawlânâ Shâh Abdul’azîz (1239 [1824 A.D.]), a son of Shâh Ahmad Waliyyullah (1179), ‘rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ’, observes as follows: Wahdat-i-wujûd deteriorated into various anomalies among the common people. Misunderstanding the words of the great, the ignorant deviated from Islam in the process of time. The highly esoteric and valuable science (,i.e. Wahdat-i-wujûd,) became a demolisher of Islam, and a source of heresy for the shaikhs of Tekke, whose aberrant paths spread among the ignorant populace. [The comatose trends buttered the bread of the enemies of Islam. Representing some irreligious and immoral people as poets of Tasawwuf, they designed school curricula containing their irreligious words, thus having the younger generations read them in the name of poetry.] Allâhu ta’âlâ, with His infinite compassion for His slaves, created a great mujaddid, Imâm Rabbânî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’. He blessed him with profound knowledge. Through him, He purified the minds of His slaves, separated right from wrong, and cleansed many a heart from heresy.

These magnificent accomplishments incurred the spite of some people and a torrent of persecutions, arrows and vilifications followed. The jealousies were even aggravated when, one by one, scholars and other virtuous and mature people left their paths and guides and hastened to join the disciples of the Imâm (Rabbânî) and to serve him. Conspiracies were resorted to for the purpose of exposing the Imâm to danger. For instance, they provoked the ignorant folk by spreading the lie that he abhorred the great Islamic shaikhs such as Junayd-i-Baghdâdî. They began to estrange the short-sighted people from the imâm by alleging that he denied the Wahdat-i-wujûd which was a science for spiritual improvement established by the great shaikhs of Islam. They tried to antagonize his admirers by asserting that he denied the Meshâikh-i-izâm and boasted of having attained the ma’rifat of Allâhu ta’âlâ directly without a guide. The defamations culminated when they finally tried to besmear him with the political felony of insubordination against the government and contempt for the laws and, into the bargain, many another libel which a Muslim could never commit against another.

26– His alleged denial of the Meshâikh-i-izâm was a blatant lie. The truth becomes manifest immediately upon beginning to read his book Maktûbât, which is a clear evidence of his profound respect towards the Meshâikh-i-izâm, so much so that he attaches beautiful meanings even to their words that are vulnerable to misinterpretation and which for centuries their enemies have exploited as fulcrums to bring their calumniations to bear, -as for their words that do not seem to be susceptible of a benevolent interpretation, he says that they were the erroneous words which those great people had said during their apprenticeship and which they corrected after attaining higher grades. He says that errors of kashf (in the paths of Tasawwuf), like errors of ijtihâd (committed by scholars who have attained the grade of ijtihâd), are not only pardonable but also meritorious acts that are likely to be rewarded (in the Hereafter). As regards his alleged denial of Wahdat-i-wujûd; those who read Maktûbât will know that the truth is quite the other way round and that he handles the matter with unprecedented adroitness by, on the one hand, protecting Islam’s honour and, on the other, paying heed to the dignity of those great people.

27– The statesmen under the time’s Sultân Selîm Jihânghir Khân, including his grand vizier, his chief muftî and his harem, were not Sunnî Muslims. However, most of the Imâm’s letters, and also his booklet Radd-i-rawâfid, especially, repudiate people without a Madhhab and explain that they are ignorant, stupid and base people. Imâm-i-Rabbânî sent that booklet of his to Abdullah Jenghiz Khân, the time’s greatest Uzbek Khân in Bukhârâ, with the note, “Show this booklet to the Iranian Shâh Abbâs Safawî! If he accepts it, things will be quite all right. If he does not, then it will be permissible to make war against him.” When the Shâh’s answer was in the negative, a war was made. Abdullah Khân took Herat (Hirât) and the cities in Khorasan. -Those places had been captured by the Safawîs a hundred years before. Upon this all the lâ-madhhabî[64] people in India cooperated, and their spokesmen showed the Sultân (Abdullah Khân) a letter which Imâm Rabbânî had written to his own master and teacher (Muhammad Bâqî Billah), i.e. the eleventh letter of the first volume, and said, “He considers himself, and claims to be, higher than all other people, even higher than Abû Bakr ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’.” The Sultân sent his own son Shâh Jihân to Imâm Rabbânî, inviting the Imâm and his sons and the other great scholars educated by the Imâm. He was resolved to have them all killed. Shâh Jihân went to Imâm, taking along a muftî with him. With them they had a fatwâ legalizing (Islamically) prostration before the Sultân (head of the Muslim state). (A fatwâ is a written answer which an Islamic scholar gives Muslims’ questions. A muftî is a scholar authorized to give a fatwâ). Shâh Jihân knew that Imâm Rabbânî was a true person. He said, “I can save you if you prostrate yourself before my father.” The Imâm replied that the legalization in the fatwâ stipulated darûrat (necessity, inevitability prescribed by Islam), that azîmat (the harder and more commendable choice) and ideal devotion to one’s faith would require refusal of a suggestion of prostration, and that nothing would save a person when the foreordained time of his death came. Leaving his sons and his ashâb (companions and disciples), he went alone. The Sultân showed him the eleventh letter and asked him what it meant. So beautiful and satisfactory was the great scholar’s answer that the Sultân, far below the level as he was to comprehend such sublime and esoteric facts, became cheered and released him apologetically. When the plotters saw that all their efforts had come to naught, they said to the Sultân, “This person has quite a number of men, and his words have caught on throughout the country. If we let him go, a chaos may follow. You see what a conceited person he is. He not only refused to show reverence, which in itself would suffice to prove his detestation, but also did not even condescend to salute you.” Indeed, the drunken, infuriated and ferocious appearance of the Sultân, as the imâm had found him upon entering his presence, had divested him of the respect and dignity that a personage in that position would normally have inspired, so that the great scholar had not even saluted him (by uttering the expression of salâm, which we have described earlier in the text). After a long debate with the assembly, the Sultân ordered that the imâm be imprisoned in the fortress of Gwalior, the most strongly fortified and the most dreadful fortress in the country. Like a nightingale caged in with lowly inmates, the Imâm’s ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ blessed face was shrouded from Muslims’ sight. The harvest moon was covered with black clouds. So gloomy was the hapless night that Sayyid Ghulâm Alî, India’s renowned man of belles lettres better known with his nickname Âzâd, could not help exquisitely versifying the event in his doleful stanzas.

28– Formerly, Imâm Rabbânî ‘qaddas-Allâhu ta’âlâ sirrah-ul ’azîz’ had stated, “There are many other ranks that are above the ranks I have attained. Those higher ranks are attainable only by way of a training with Jelâl (Majesty, Wrath, Rage of Allâhu ta’âlâ, which materializes as disasters, misfortunes, cares). So far, I have been trained with Jemâl (Beauty, Grace of Allâhu ta’âlâ), i.e. with fondlings.” Also, he had said to some of his companions, “Between fifty and sixty, cares and disasters will shower on me.” It happened exactly as he had said, and he was blessed with those higher ranks as well.

29– Thousands of unbelievers imprisoned in the fortress were honoured with îmân and Islam owing to the barakat of the blessed Imâm ‘quddisa sirruh’. An approximately equal number of Muslims made tawba (for the sinful lives they had led before). In fact, some of them would later attain very high positions in Islamic scholarship. A striking example is the illustrious conversion to Islam of a great commander of the fire-worshipping Indians, who happened to be among the audience as the blessed scholar was explaining the eleventh letter to the Sultân and yielded to the merits of the Imâm’s religious steadfastness and the flavour and high standard of his wording. The Sultân’s vizier had appointed his own brother as a guard to wait upon the imâm with instructions that “the convict should undergo a harsh treatment.” Yet the fortunate brother, witnessing various karâmats (wonders and miracles) on the blessed imâm, and an awe-inspiring dignity, patience, and even exultation, instead of dejection, into the bargain, made tawba, doffed the halter of heresy, ornamented himself with the necklace of Ahl as-sunnat, and consigned himself into the pond of grace where bathed the truest disciples of the blessed religious scholar ‘quddisa sirruh’.

30– Not to the least extent did the imprisonment bear on the philanthropy that Imâm Rabbânî ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ held towards the Sultân. Pleased with what he had done to him, he would always pronounce benedictions over him. As a matter of fact, some of the companions of the Imâm ‘quddisa sirruh’ had a design against the Sultân, which was very well within their power. Yet the Imâm prevented them, showing himself to them in their dreams as well as when they were awake, and advised them to pronounce benedictions over the Sultân. “Hurting the Sultân will cause harm to all the people,” he would say. Readers of Maktûbât will see these facts in all their clarity in the letters which he wrote to his sons from the dungeon.

31– Sultân Selîm Jihânghîr Khân’s son, Shâh Jihân ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’, rose against his father. He had a powerful army and was sincerely backed by most of the commanders who were apparently on his father’s side. Yet the advantages he had proved short of bringing him victory. He told his story to one of the time’s Awliyâ and asked for benedictions. The Walî said: Your victory depends on the benedictions on the part of the four poles (highest Walîs and scholars) of the present time. Three of them are with you. Yet the fourth one, who is the highest one, does not approve of your attempt. That exalted person is Hadrat Imâm Rabbânî Mujaddid-i-alf-i-thânî ‘quddisa sirruh’. Shâh Jihân went to the Imâm and begged the great scholar to invoke a blessing on him. The Imâm ‘quddisa sirruh’ counselled him to give up the plan to overthrow his father, saying, “Go to your father, kiss his hand and apologize! He will soon pass away and the sovereignty will be yours.” Shâh Jihân listened to his advice and gave up his plan. A short time later, in 1037 [1627 A.D.], his father passed away, whereupon he attained his wish, sovereignty. Then, how could one ever believe the jealous plotters’ slander that Imâm Rabbânî disobeyed the Sultân and flouted the laws?

32– Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ had spent two or three valuable years in the fortress, when the Sultân began to feel remorse for his wrongdoing. Having him taken out of the prison, he showed him kindness. In fact, he became one of his true disciples and faithful friends. He ordered him to stay for some time among the army. Later, he set him free and, with deep reverence, sent him to his homeland. When Imâm Rabbânî ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’aleyh’ was back home, he had attained grades and states thousands of times higher than the spiritual positions which he had been occupying (before imprisonment). With the exception of his blessed sons and his successors whom he educated, no one can be privy to the occult and secret spiritual facts and ma’rifats permeating through his letters which he wrote in the aftermath. Those valuable letters of his complement the three volumes of Maktûbât.

33– Such afflictions and disasters befell not only the greatest Awliyâ, but also prophets ‘alaihim-us-salawâtu wa-t-taslîmât’, so that today’s Awliyâ and devoted Muslims will find solace in them and the afflictions and disasters that the ignorant witness to befall the contemporary Awliyâ will not be construed as symptomatic of iniquity (of the people who suffer them). Historians, who are unaware of this subtlety, write only about the pleasant facts concerning the Awliyâ, withholding some events which reflect their human demeanours. This sparing policy misleads their uncritical readers into visualising them as impeccable and angelic creatures; and, ergo, a most trivial sight of human weakness which they observe on a person who is said to be a pious and devoted Muslim or a Walî causes them to think otherwise, which in turn means that they cannot get a share from the spiritual gifts the blessed person has been endowed with, since you cannot acquire any blessings from a person about whom you have a bad opinion. Some people go even further wrong by gossiping about those pure Muslims. They do not know that Allâhu ta’âlâ hides His beloved slaves under the screen of human mediocrities. As a matter of fact, He declares, “I hide My beloved ones. Not everybody can recognize them.” Imâm Rabbânî ‘qaddas-Allâhu ta’âlâ sirrah-ul ’azîz’ offers a number of explanations on this subject in Maktûbât, while, on the other hand, Muhyiddîn Arabî ‘quddisa sirruh’ states in his book Futuhât that a peccadillo that breaks the heart and humbles the nafs is more useful than an act of worship which inflames the nafs and brings pride to the heart.

34– Having attained his loftiest aspirations, Imâm Rabbânî, Mujaddid-i-alf-i-thânî, Ahmad Fârûqî ‘quddisa sirruh’ reached the grades which Allâhu ta’âlâ bestowed on him, and thereafter, when the time which Allâhu ta’âlâ had foreordained, (i.e. the taqdîr-i-ilâhî,) came, he accepted the invitation extended by Azrâîl ‘alaihis-salâm’ (Angel of Death ) and attained the Refîq-i-a’lâ (Allâhu ta’âlâ) on the twenty-ninth day, Tuesday, of the blessed month of Safer (the second Arabic lunar month) in 1034 [1624 A.D.]. He was buried in the cemetery of Sihrind. May Allâhu ta’âlâ bless his soul with peace and his grave with plenty of nûr! May He make us attain the barakat of his valuable breath and his love! May He guide us to his shafâ’at and join us with his lovers who will assemble under his banner on the Rising Day! Âmîn.

35– People have different habits, different predilections, different wishes, and different thoughts. Therefore, not only as he was alive did he have admirers as well as adversaries, but also after his passing away two different groups of people held two opposite opinions about him. Whereas one group explicitly praised him, another followed the line of criticism. The antagonistic attempts, however, let alone choke his universally renowned ma’rifats, merely betokened evanescent snowflakes on a river. Or, rather, they contributed to his reputation, for, every attempt on the part of his adversaries to scatter poison his admirers counterplotted against with a variety of antidotal confutations. This reciprocal struggle proved fructiferous enough to give birth to more than seventy books specially devoted to this subject. One of them, perhaps the greatest one, the booklet Atiyya-t-ul wahhâb fâsila-t-u-bayn-al-hatâ wa-th-thawâb, a masterpiece composed by Muhammad Uzbekî Makkî, put the adversaries to a crying shame from which they should not have had the face to raise their heads. After the imâm’s passing away ‘quddisa sirruh’, many scholars lauded him and wrote very useful and important books. One of them is Mawlânâ Abdullah Itâqîzâda ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ, the Muftî of Mekka-i-mukarrama, the Shaikh-ul-Islâm, and the Imâm-ul-’allâma. We have not translated the passage from his book which occupies a few pages of the Arabic version.

36– A profoundly learned scholar who praised Imâm Rabbânî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ after his passing away is Ziyâeddîn Mawlânâ Khâlid ’Uthmânî Baghdâdî ‘quddisa sirruh’, a leader of ârifs, a guide to truth, a paragon of the highest attainable spiritual grades, an owner of physical and spiritual perfections, and an ocean of knowledge. The following paragraph is a paraphrased translation of the couplets in the ninety-fourth page of his Persian divan, in which he utters the delicacies of his lofty soul:

“Yâ Rabbî! Please do forgive me for the sake of the haloes in the eyes of Ahmad Fârûqî ‘quddisa sirruh’; a wayfarer of that endless path; a leader of the owners of knowledge; a source of the occult secrets which are neither perceptible to the human sight nor attainable with mind; an owner of greatness beyond the human cognizance and which Thou, alone, knowest; an ocean where meanings foam and crest like waves; a chief of a world where material beings or places do not exist; a source of nûr whose lights illuminate India; a beloved slave for whose sake the city of Sihrind was transmuted into the valley where Mûsâ (Moses) ‘alaihis-salâm’ received the Word of Allâhu ta’âlâ; a document to prove the greatness of the religion of Muhammad ‘alaihis-salâm’; a light for the assembly of the keen-sighted; a commander of the army of absolute piety; a master who not only has attained unthinkable spiritual heights but also guides those who follow his path! Please do overlook my black face! So ruthlessly have I abused myself, innumerable are the faults I have committed, and so disloyal have I been in my promise. Yet the endlessness of Thine ocean of forgiveness and compassion makes me feel hopeful. Thine infinite Kindness, alone, do I rely on. For, ‘I am the Forgiver,’ Thou sayest.”

37– Another scholar who praised him was Hadrat Sayyid Tâhâ Hakkârî ‘quddisa sirruh’, a profoundly learned savant, a virtuous Walî-i-kâmil, a possessor of innumerable karâmats (wonders, miracles), and the highest of the Awliyâ educated and trained by Mawlânâ Khâlid Baghdâdî ‘quddisa sirruh’.

38– Another scholar who praised Imâm Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ was Sayyid Abdulhakîm Efendi ‘rahmatullâhi ’aleyh’, a gem of scholarship and an ideal perfection among the Awliyâ. He states as follows in a letter that he wrote to a devoted Muslim: “Dhikr, and so the effect of dhikr, is a deep sea. No one has reached down its depths. It is a such rough ocean that the entire world is quite unaware of any one of its waves. It is such a vast mass of water surrounding the world that the entire universe would not be able to comprehend it. Dhikr is a spiritual state that occurs in the hearts of those who make dhikr. It is something impossible to describe, to write about, to explain.

“A person who knows Allâhu ta’âlâ becomes speechless. He cannot find words to describe what he is experiencing. He becomes overwhelmed with bewilderment. He is quite oblivious to the world and to other people. As Allâhu ta’âlâ is the Person whose dhikr is being made, likewise, He, alone, is the Person who makes dhikr. He, alone, is capable of making dhikr of Himself. Who are poor creatures to make dhikr of Him? However, He commands His human creature to make dhikr of Him in order to tinge his own attributes with the (Attributes of Allâhu ta’âlâ termed) Sifât-i-ilâhiyya. Every person (who makes dhikr) finds an amount of consolation proportional to his abilities in that endless and wavy sea. Ways-al-Qarânî contented himself with a drop from that ocean. Junayd Baghdâdî was satisfied with a handful from that sea. Abdulqâdir-i-Geylânî only reached the shore of the sea. Muhyiddîn-i-Arabî took pride in a jewel taken out from the bottom of the sea. And Imâm Rabbânî acquired a great share from it ‘rahimahumullâhu ta’âlâ.
“The letters alif, lâm and he (pronounced as he according to the International Phonetic Alphabet), which serve in the formation of the word ‘Allah’, i.e. the very great word representing a Person, -who is not comparable to any other being,- are means and vehicles that lead to the tenor. Dhikr is not, in itself, to pronounce these letters. Dhikr is the spiritual state produced through the word, ‘Allah’. The word is called dhikr out of necessity to symbolize, and not in the actual sense.

“For the same matter, the expression (termed) Kalima-i-tawhîd is not dhikr, either. Yet, with respect to its being pronounced and its meaning, it serves as a means for dhikr, which, in reality, is a state of heart and spirit which comes into being from saying it repeatedly with the heart. Attainment of that spiritual state depends on the expression.”
The above-cited translation of the passage from the letter, which is considerably much longer, is an elaborate, eloquent, concise, and at the same time detailed and thorough praise and laudation of Imâm Rabbânî ‘qaddas-Allâhu ta’âlâ sirrah-ul ’azîz’.

Sayyid Abdulhakîm Efendi ‘quddisa sirruh’ would frequently say, “Ba’da kitâbillah wa ba’da kitâb-i-Rasûlillah, afdal-i-kutub Maktûbât-est,” during his lectures, and the same statement is written in several of his letters. This statement translates into English as follows: “After the Qur’ân al-kerîm, which is the Book of Allâhu ta’âlâ, (and which therefore is the highest and best of all books,) and after the book Bukhârî, which is a compilation of the hadîth-i-sherîfs, i.e. the utterances of Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’, (and which naturally, is the second highest and best book,) the third highest and best book written in the Islamic religion is the book Maktûbât, (which is a compilation of the letters written by Hadrat Imâm Rabbânî).” [Whereas Mathnawî (Mesnevî), written by Jalâladdîn-i-Rûmî (Celâleddîn-i-Rûmî), is the most valuable book telling about the ma’rifats and the perfections in the grades of Wilâyat attained by the Awliyâ-i-kirâm, Maktûbât, written by Imâm Rabbânî Ahmad Fârûqî, is the most valuable and the highest of the books explaining both the perfections and the ma’rifats in the grades of Wilâyat and the ma’rifats and the kamâlât (perfections) and the subtleties peculiar to the grade of prophethood.]

An excerpt from one of his letters translates into English as follows: “... who has read and partly understood the book Maktûbât, which is the most useful book from worldly as well as religious points of view and whose compeer in the Islamic religion has not so far been written... .” He, (i.e. Abdulhakîm Efendi,) would say, “A person who knows a little Persian (Fârisî) language will understand Maktûbât better if he reads the Persian version. For the Turkish version rendered by Müstekimzâde Süleymân Efendi is both complicated and erroneous.” Müstekîmzâde Süleymân Efendi, a disciple of Muhammed Emîn Tokâdî, passed away in 1202 [1788 A.D.]. His grave is adjacent to that of his master at Zeyrek, Istanbul. The book Maktûbât was printed various times at various places. A splendid edition was made in Karachi, Pakistan, in 1392 [1972 A.D.]. It consists of two volumes. The first volume contains the first part, and the second and third parts are incorporated in the second volume. The two volumes were reproduced in pulchritudinous copies in Istanbul by offset process for which best quality paper was used. A Persian abridgement of Maktûbât was rendered in 1080 [1668 A.D.] by Muhammad Bâqir Lahôrî, an eminent one among the hundreds of Awliyâ educated and trained by Muhammad Ma’thûm Serhendî, one of the blessed sons of Imâm Rabbânî. The abridged version, entitled Kanz-ul-hidâyât by the author himself, is of a hundred and twenty pages and contains twenty hidâyats (subtitles). It was printed in Lâhôr in 1376 [1957 A.D.] The same blessed Walî wrote another book, entitled Urwa-t-ul-wusqâ, in the Fârisî language.
Inheriting from Rasûlullah, he was mujaddid alf thânî;
A mujtahid in all sciences, he was in Tasawwuf Ways al-Qarânî.
He spread Islam worldover, illuminated every Believer;
Awaken the unaware did the most exalted Imâm, Rabbânî.
All tenets in Islam he knew well, the Sharî’at he obeyed well;
Rank with unbelief as the entire world was, like Abû Bakr was he.
All received fayz from his sohbat, commanders and governors alike,
He descended from ’Umar Fârûq, true people give testimony.

source: the book SAHABA 'The Blessed'

Friday, May 27, 2011

Marriage and the Rights of Spouses

People of wisdom state:In order to be successful, we should not argue with or speak ill of or pick on anyone, for in such a case there is a danger that we may hurt a person's feelings (may Allah forbid!). Hadrat Imam an-Nawawi was both a scholar and a dear servant of Allah. However, he never got married. When people asked him, "Sir, you carry out all the obligatory and voluntary obligations and duties. But why do you not marry and follow this Prophetic practice [sunnah]?" he said in reply:

"I feel anxious that I may fall into forbidden actions while I am trying to perform a Prophetic practice. I fear greatly that I may hurt my wife's feelings or I may not earn sustenance through lawful means. Such fears are the reasons why I abstain from marrying. Is it possible not to be fearful of incurring divine punishment?"
It is not meant by these statements that people must not get married. Rather, marriage is a great blessing. A married person saves half of his religion, but at the same time he must not forget his spouse's rights. He who has learnt Islam fully and lives by it should not fear at all. However, he who has learnt or practices it wrongly will never be free from trouble and disasters. Problems and worries will not end in a house unless family members read a true Islamic book and put it into practice.

The lady whom a man marries is not a slave or a servant. Then what is her status? Our religious superiors stated: "Allahu ta'ala sent down from Paradise to the earth a blessing. But this blessing is not a copy of its original, but the real, genuine form itself. This blessing is a pious wife. A devout wife who wears hijab, guards her chastity, and performs acts of worship is a real blessing from Paradise."
One can only respect and love such a blessing of Paradise. Marriage is a beneficent gift, but married people have been put under a great responsibility. As a matter of fact, the most distressing questioning in the next world will be about human rights. Even prophets were afraid of the seventh question to be asked at the Sirat Bridge, which will be about the rights of human beings.

What is meant by the hadith-i sharif "Die before death" is as follows:

Our eyes will be opened in the Hereafter, and we will see all the facts. We will bitterly regret, but it will be of no avail. Then we must be regretful now before having regrets that day. We must feel sorry for the time we wasted doing nothing, for the sins we committed, for our misbehavior that hurt other people's feelings, that is, for all of our actions that were against our religion, because the time of regret will certainly come. We should assume that what will befall us after death has befallen us now and accustom ourselves to it. All of what is preached here today will actually happen in the world to come. For this reason, we should emigrate from this world to the next with preparations made in advance so that we may not be surprised there.

Ashq, love, and passion

Question: Can we call ‘ashq ephemeral passion and love true emotion?

Love and ‘ashq are the same thing. Love is the heart’s inclination towards what it derives pleasure from. It is called love to desire to be all the time together and to get pleasure from being together. The love which is intense is called ‘ashq. The meaning of love in Islamic context is as follows:

Love is to subordinate oneself to the Beloved without expecting anything in return, to obey Him, to consider all His deeds beautiful, to deem every sorrow and trouble sent by Him to be sweeter than any favor, and to think of His friends as friends and His enemies as enemies. The last one is also called hubb-i fillah and bughd-i fillah. The word the Beloved herein refers to Allahu ta’âlâ. The love which is for the sake of Allah is valuable, but there is no goodness in the love which is not for the sake of Allah.

Today, the word ‘ashq is wrongly applied to the sensual, bestial desires of the nafs and to ephemeral passions. It is incorrect. It causes confusion in concepts and terms. If we call the sensual desire of the nafs passion, then passion is abominable:

Passion is a disgrace, but love is virtue.
Passion keeps you from sleeping, but love keeps in mind.
Passion disrupts the process of thinking and reasoning, but love advances towards its goal in company with the mind.
There are pitfalls in passion, but nothing is concealed in love.
Passion sets to nonsensical actions, but love reaches higher ranges.
Passion is quick to change lovers, but love does not keep [people] apart. Instead, it brings [them] together.
Passion removes chastity, but love melts in chastity.
Passion makes you insensitive and makes you meet the beloved in secret, but love alleviates lust.
Passion shakes the confidence and is deceitful, but love inspires confidence.
Passion smells a flower, becomes satisfied, and looks for a new one. But love waters the flower, grows it, and knocks it into shape.
Passion ends and becomes a lie. It bites you like a snake. But love comes true, seeks you, finds you, and protects you against dangers.
Passion continues for a short time only, but love continues all through your life.
Passion deceives you, distresses you, but love does not deceive you. Nor does it deviate from veracity.
Passion is jealous, but love is trustful.
Passion breaks something into pieces, but love pieces them together.
Passion is like hungry beasts with rabies, but love is like health-giving medicines.
Passion is two-faced, insincere. But love is sincere. It shines like the sun and warms you up.
Passion tramples you underfoot and chooses a new prey, but love protects you and goes on with you.
Passion prefers short-term investments, but love’s investment is for eternity.
Passion is temporal and selective, but love is permanent and conciliatory.
Passion makes a ruler a slave, but ashq (intense love) makes a slave a ruler.

Hadrat Zulaikhâ sacrificed all her property, possessions, beauty, moreover, all her riches in the way of Hadrat Yûsuf initially for her passion for him and subsequently for her love of him. She would give gold jewelry to people who said that they had seen Yûsuf. However, when she married Yûsuf ‘alaihis-salâm, she did not go near to him, saying, “The love of Allahu ta’âlâ, alone, suffices for me.” So it was understood that she attained to true love.

We have mentioned above that the love which is intense is termed ‘ashq. Allahu ta’âlâ loves our Prophet much; that is, He has fallen in love (‘ashq) with him. It is stated in a hadîth-i qudsî:
(O My Messenger! I made the Prophet Ibrâhîm My khalîl [friend], but I have made you My habîb [the beloved one, darling].) [Mawâhib-i Ladunniya]
In (the celebrated eulogy called) Mawlid, Allahu ta’âlâ says, “My Habîb, I fell in love with you.” Those who view ‘ashq as the sensual desire of the nafs have fallen into the misfortune of criticizing this statement.
A quatrain is as follows:

What is ashq like?
It is shiny, sunlike
A heart devoid of ashq
is like stones and rock.

Monday, May 23, 2011


Parts of the body that men and women are to cover during salat and elsewhere are called ‘awrat parts’. If a person says that Islam does not prescribe a certain part in the name of awrat, he becomes an unbeliever. Some parts of the body are awrat according to the ijma’ (unanimity, consessu) of all four Madhhabs [1], (and these awrat parts vary with sex).

If a person flouts the importance of covering these parts of his (or her) body or of not looking at others’ exposed awrat parts, i.e. if he (or she) does not feel any fear concerning the torment (that will be incrurred by the violation of this prohibition), he (or she) becomes a disbeliever. In a man’s body, parts between the pelvis and the knees are not awrat in the Madhhab of Hanbali.

If a person says, “I am a Muslim,” he has to learn Islam’s tenets and the actions that are fard (obligatory) and those that are haram (forbidden) with the consensus (ijma’) of the four Madhhabs, and he has to pay due importance to this matter. Not to know is not a valid excuse. It is identical with intentional unbelief.

A woman’s entire body, with the exception of her hands and face, is awrat according to all four Madhhabs. So is the case with a woman’s exposing her awrat parts, singing, or saying (aloud the eulogy called) Mawlid in the presence of men. If a person slightingly exposes a part of his body which is awrat not with ijma’, i.e. which is not awrat in one of the other three Madhhabs, (though it is awrat according to his own Madhhab and two of the other three Madhhabs,) he will have committed a grave sin though this violation will not make him an unbeliever. An example of this is a man’s exposing his legs between the pelvis and the knees, (which are, as we have already said, not awrat in the Hanbali though they are awrat in the other three Madhhabs).

It is fard to learn the Islamic tenets that you do not know. As soon as you learn them, you must make tawba and cover your awrat parts. Lying, gossip, backbiting, slander, theft, cheating, treachery, hurting someone’s feelings, mischief-making, using someone’s property without permission, not paying a laborer’s or porter’s due, rebellion, that is, opposing the laws and the government’s orders, and not paying that are not so commonly spread or indispensable so as to be known by him, he is not in disbelief (kufr) but sinful (fisq).

[1] madhhab: all of what a profound ‘alim of (especially) Fiqh (usually one of the four-Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki, Hanbali) or iman (one of the two, namely Ash-ari, Maturidi) communicated

Whoever is for Allah, Allah will be for him

Question: Is the hadîth, “Whoever is for Allah, Allah will be for him,” which is written in Forty Ahâdîth by Sadraddîn Konawî, authentic?
ANSWERAsking this is much absurder than having an elementary child check a mathematical operation done by a professor of mathematics. Did Hadrat Sadraddin Konawî not have as much knowledge as we have? Was he so heedless and ignorant as to report a made-up hadîth in his book? The meaning of this hadîth-i sharîf is as follows:
(Whoever’s objective is the pleasure of Allah, Allahu ta’âlâ will make him attain to his objective.)
There are similar verses in the Qur’ân al-karîm. Some of them are as follows:
(Allah is pleased with those who fear [who avoid sins] their Rabb [He accepts their acts of worship. That is how he is pleased with them], and they are pleased with Him [because they have attained more than they expect].) [Sûrat-ul-Bayyinah, 8]

(Remember Me, and I will remember you.) [Sûrat-ul-Baqara, 152]

That is, if you remember Me through acts of worship, I will remember you with compassion. If you pray to Me, I will respond to your prayer. If you remember Me in the world, I will remember you in the Hereafter. If you remember Me in times of ease and comfort, I will remember and help you in times of distress.

(If you help Allah, He will help you.) [Sûrat-u Muhammad, 7]

That is, if you strive to serve Allah’s religion, Allah, in turn, will help you against your enemies.

(Allah helps those who help Him.) [Sûrat-ul-Hajj, 40]
Helping Allah means serving His religion. In other words, Allah is the helper of those who work for the cause of Him. He multiplies His rewards in return for His slave’s a little effort. For a single good deed, He grants a tenfold recompense or seven hundredfold recompense or even more than this. (Sûrat-ul-Baqara, 261)
There are many hadîth-i qudsîs on this subject. Some of them are as follows:
(I will be the eyes which see, the ears which hear, the hands which hold things, the feet which walk, the tongue which talk, of My born servant I like. I will give him whatever he wants.)

(Whoever approaches Me by the length of a hand-span, I will approach him by a cubit. Whoever approaches Me by a cubit, I will approach him by the length of two outstretched arms. If anyone comes to Me walking, I will approach him running.)
[Bukhârî, Imam-i Ahmad, Ibni Shâhin]

(Remember Me with My tâ'at, and I will remember you with My forgiveness. Whoever remembers Me obediently, I will forgive him. Whoever remembers Me disobediently, I will remember him with My torment.)

(You are grateful as long as you remember Me. You are in disbelief
[that is, you are ungrateful] as long as you forget Me.) [Hatib]

(If a person remembers Me in private, I will remember him near angels. If a person remembers Me at a gathering, I will remember him at a gathering which is better and bigger than that one.) [Tabarânî]

(O son of Âdam! When you get angry, remember Me. In this way, when I become angry, I will remember you with My forgiveness and will not destroy you among those who will be destroyed.)
[Ibni Shâhin]

(I am with My slave as long as his lips are moving with My dhikr
[remembrance].) [Bukhârî]

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Being unable to find a marriage partner

Question: I am a 30-year-old female who have not been able to get married, though having no ethical or physical faults and defects. People around me are gossiping about me, saying, "She has been left on the shelf." I am in this situation through no fault of my own. Is it from qadar, too?

The heretical sect called the Jabriyyah puts the blame on qadar. As for the Mu'tazilite sect, it denies the role of qadar. Everything happens by the will and preordainment of Allahu ta'ala. Qadar is always from Allahu ta'ala, whether it is good or bad, sweet or dismal. Qadar is Allahu ta'ala's foreknowing in eternal past the things that will take place. Qada' is His creating anything just compatibly with qadar when the time comes.

After one takes measures and applies proper means, if one is not blessed with the lot of marriage, it will be wrong to distress oneself because of it. "Nasibuke yusibuke," as the saying goes. It means, "If something was preordained for you, you will certainly obtain it."

In order to be freed from troubles, to perform acts of worship comfortably, and to refrain from prohibited things, it is necessary to make du'a (supplication, prayer) with patience. Our Master the Prophet stated, "Du'a is the weapon of a Believer" (Ibn Abi ad-Dunya).

In addition to it, it is declared in the Qur'an al-karim, "O you who believe! Seek help from Allah through patience and salat" (Al-Baqarah 153).

As is seen, patience, salat, and du'a are of great importance. Trouble befalls man because of his insistence on some things. One should take precautions but should not rely on precautions, for precautions cannot thwart Allah's decree. It is fard to submit to Allah's decree and preordainment and to believe in it. It is declared in a hadith-i sharif:
(Being pleased with qadar is a sign of happiness. Being displeased with it is a sign of unhappiness.) [Tirmidhi]

Hadrat Muhammad Ma'thum says:
Worries and grief that befall man come by divine will and preordainment, so he should be pleased with them. He should keep performing acts of worship, endure worries and diseases with patience, and expect welfare from Allah's grace. He should not expect anything from creatures and should know well that everything comes from Allahu ta'ala. He should make supplication and ask for forgiveness so as to be delivered from grief and troubles. No one can harm anyone except by His will and decree. Nevertheless, applying means is the way of prophets. He should also ask Allahu ta'ala to give effectiveness to means. (Vol. 1, Letter 72)

Saturday, May 21, 2011

Does Qadar Change?

Question: Does du'a (supplication, prayer) change qadar? What is the meaning of the statement "If Allah has written it, let Him erase it"? Is it also from qadar to will a person to supplicate? What is the length of time that qadar continues to exist? Is it eternal in the past or eternal in the future? Does qadar have a qadar, too?

ANSWERTo start with, one should know qada', qadar, and their kinds. Qadar is Allahu ta'ala's knowing in the eternal past the things that will happen. Qada' is His creating the things existing in qadar when the time comes. That is, qadar is like a payroll. Qada' is like distribution of wages. Allahu ta'ala knows what all people will do, where and how they will die. It is termed qadar. The Qur'an al-karim says (what means):
(Allah knows what they did and what they will do.) [Al-Baqarah 255]

If a movie is screened many times and if a person watching it before says while watching it the third time, "The leading actor will fall off the horse and die," will the performer die because one member of the audience said so, or does he knows it because he watched it before?

The times when the sun will rise and set in a year are calculated and written on charts and timetables. The sun rises and sets at those times written on charts and timetables. However, it does not rise or set at those times as they were written beforehand so. Their having been written does not affect its rising or setting. Likewise, Allahu ta'ala knows what will befall humans, and He wrote it in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz. A Qur'anic verse says:

(Allah knows the place where every living creature stands and where it will be left in the end. All of them are in a clear book [Al-Lawh al-Mahfuz].) [Hud 6]
Qadar is divided into two categories: qadar that may change and qadar that does not change. For example, the appointed time of death that does not change is called ajal al-musamma. It is declared in a Qur'anic verse:
(Death is never late even for a moment, nor does it come before time is up.) [Al-A'raf 34]

A person's lifetime and sustenance (rizq) may change according to his deeds. The Qur'an al-karim says (what means):
(Allah erases what He wishes, and He does not change what He does not wish to. Umm-ul-kitab [al-Lawh al-Mahfuz] is with Him.) [Ar-Ra'd 39]

Umm-ul-kitab is the name of the Divine word, which is eternal. Angels cannot understand it. It is not with time. No one but Allah knows it. It never ceases to exist. As for al-Lawh al-Mahfuz, there are changes in it. Angels see it. A person's lifetime and sustenance may be changed on account of his deeds. The good may be changed into evil and the evil into good. Another Qur'anic verse says:
(Verily, lifetimes of all and the shortening of lifetimes are recorded in the Book.) [Fatir 11]

The qada' and qadar that may change are termed qada al-mu'allaq. If a person does a good deed and his du'a is accepted, qada' can change. It is declared in hadith-i sharifs:

(Nothing can change the qada al-mu'allaq. Only du'a can change it.) [Hakim]

(Qadar does not change by taking precautions or avoiding. But a du'a that is accepted protects one against an approaching catastrophe.)

(Silat-ur-rahm [upholding the ties of kinship] lengthens one's lifetime.) [Tabarani]

The recording of qadar in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz is qada'. If the disaster predestined for a person is qada' al-mu'allaq and if it had been predestined also that the person would pray, he prays and, when the prayer is accepted, it prevents the disaster. Du'a's repelling the catastrophe is also within qada' and qadar. As an umbrella is a shield against rain, so du'a acts as a shield against disasters.

Ajal al-musamma (time of death that does not change) does not change, but ajal al-qada' (time of death that is conditional) may change. Let us give an example:
Two people came to Hadrat Dawud and complained about each other. Azrail (Angel of Death) 'alaihis-salam came to him and said, "One of these two people has one week before his death. The other's lifetime was over a week ago, but he did not die." When Hadrat Dawud was astonished and asked the reason why, he answered, "The latter had a relative who was offended with him. He visited him and reconciled himself with him. For this reason, Allahu ta'ala decreed to add 20 years to his lifetime.) (The booklet titled Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz and Umm-ul-kitab)

What are a nabî and a rasûl?

Question: Some people, in order to represent their masters as rasûls, say, “A prophet to whom a Book was sent is called a nabî (prophet), while a prophet to whom no Book was sent is called a rasûl (messenger).” Has prophethood not ended? Is our Prophet not the last prophet?

Such claims that have nothing to do with the Islamic faith are of the tactics and ruses of the enemies of Islam who want to demolish our religion from within. Saying “Only the Qur’ân!” and interpreting the âyât (Qur’anic verses) according to their own minds, they show no regard for the explanations given by the Messenger of Allah. They consider all ahâdîth to be made-up.
A prophet to whom a Book was sent is called a rasûl. A nabî, on the other hand, is a prophet who disseminated the religion of the rasûl coming before him. A prophet who did not bring a new religion but invited people to the previous religion is called a nabî. Every rasûl is a nabî at the same time, yet every nabî is not a rasûl. Payghambar is a Persian word which is used in the meaning of rasûl or nabî. Our master the Prophet is referred to as a Rasûl, and sometimes as a Nabî, in many places of the Qur’ân al-karîm. His being referred to as a nabî does not prevent him from being a rasûl. That is, calling a rasûl a nabî does not mean that he is not a rasûl. It is similar to sometimes calling the chief of the general staff a general, a senior military officer, or a soldier.
In the communication (tablîgh) of commands and in calling the people to Allahu ta’âlâ’s religion, there is no difference between a rasûl and a nabî. The 27th verse of ‘Ankabût Sûra purports, “We gave him [Ibrâhîm] Ishâq and Ya’qûb [after Ismâîl] as well. We bestowed on his descendants prophethood [being a nabî] and the Books [the Tawrât, the Injîl, the Zabûr, the Qur’ân].” According to this verse, as prophethood [being a nabî] was bestowed upon the descendants of Ibrâhîm ‘alaihis-salâm, so there were also rasûls among his descendants who were given Books. (Baydâwî, Madârik, Jalâlayn)

Let us give examples of rasûls with a Holy Book. Hadrat Mûsâ (Moses) was a rasûl. The purport of some Qur’anic verses is as follows:
(Mûsâ said, “O Pharaoh! Undoubtedly, I am a rasûl sent by the Rabb of the worlds.) [Sûrat-ul-A’râf, 104]
(Even this verse alone suffices to show up their lies. The Tawrât was descended to Hadrat Mûsâ; that is, a Book was sent to him. For this reason, he is called a rasûl. As a Book was revealed to our master the Prophet as well, many verses mention him as a rasûl. The word rasûl appears a lot more because when the word rasûl is used, it also includes the word nabî in itself. In the same way, the word rasûl appears in the Kalama-i shahâdat. If being a nabî were higher in rank, then that word would have been used.)
(We sent Mûsâ with Our miracles to Pharaoh and his establishment. Mûsâ said, “I am the Rasûl of the Rabb of the worlds.”) [Sûrat-uz-Zukhruf, 46] (He explicitly states in this verse that Hadrat Mûsâ was a rasûl.)
Hadrat Mûsâ, like our master the Prophet, was both a rasûl and a nabî. The purport of the following verse declares:
(Remember Mûsâ in the Book. Certainly, he was a servant with ikhlâs, and he was a nabî, a rasûl.) [Sûrat-u Maryam, 51]

Hadrat ‘Îsâ (Jesus), too, was a rasûl with a Book. The purport of a verse is as follows:
(The Messiah [‘Îsâ], son of Maryam, is only a rasûl.) [Sûrat-ul-Mâ’ida, 75]
(Because of their saying, “We killed ‘Îsâ, son of Maryam, Allah’s Rasûl,” We cursed them [the Jews] and expelled them from Our compassion.) [Sûrat-un-Nisâ’, 157]
Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm, a rasûl with a Book, desired that Hârûn (Aaron), his brother, should be his vizier, that is, his helper.
An âyah purports as follows:
(O my Rabb! From my family, appoint Hârûn, my brother, to be my helper. Support me with him, and make him a partner in my task.) [Sûrat-u Tâhâ, 29-32]
Accepting his (this) prayer, Allahu ta’âlâ declares:
(Allah said, “O Mûsâ! You have been given what you asked.”) [Sûrat-u Tâhâ, 36]
(We gave Mûsâ the Book, and We appointed Hârûn, his brother, to be his helper.) [Sûrat-ul-Furqân, 35]
It was Hadrat Mûsâ who was given a Book and who was a rasûl. Hadrat Hârûn, on the other hand, was his vizier, that is, his helper. Could his helper be higher than he? When Hadrat Mûsâ was a rasûl, Hadrat Hârûn was appointed as a nabî. The purport of a verse is as follows:
(Out of Our mercy, We granted him his brother Hârûn as a nabî.) [Sûrat-u Maryam, 53]
Hadrat Hârûn was a nabî, who disseminated the religion brought by Mûsâ ‘alaihis-salâm, that is, the Musawî religion (true religion of Hadrat Mûsâ).
(When Zakariyya was performing salât in the mihrab, the angels called out to him saying, “Allah gives you good news of Yahyâ [John], who is a confirmer of Kalimullah [Jesus], who is a chief [leader of his tribe], who controls his nafs, and who is a nabî from among the pious.”) [Sûrat-u Âl-i ‘Imrân, 39] (The fact that Hadrat ‘Îsâ was a rasûl with a Book has been made known with the verses above. Hadrat Yahyâ was a nabî, who spread the religion brought by Hadrat ‘Îsâ, that is, the Isawî religion [true religion of Hadrat ‘Îsâ].)
As it is seen clearly from these examples, a prophet to whom a Book was given is called a rasûl. A prophet who spread the religion brought by a rasûl is called a nabî. Every rasûl is a nabî at the same time. No nabî will succeed our master the Prophet. As a matter of fact, an âyah purports as follows:
(He is the Rasûl of Allah and the last of the nabîs.) [Sûrat-ul-Ahzâb, 40]

Now that no nabî will succeed him, a rasûl never succeeds him because the rank of being a rasûl is more special and higher than the rank of being a nabî. Having cited these Qur’anic verses, now let us list the pertinent ahâdîth:
(Nubuwwa [prophethood] and risâla [messengership] ended. No nabî or rasûl will succeed me.) [Tirmudhî]
(The coming of nabîs ended with me.) [Muslim]
(The first of the rasûls is Âdam and the last is Muhammad.) [Hakim, Tabarânî]
(I am not saying this to boast [I am telling the truth]: I am the master of the mursals [all prophets who were sent either as a rasul or as a nabî]. I am the final of them all and the first of intercessors.) [Dârimî]
(My status in comparison with the other nabîs is like this exemplification: A person builds a nice house, but one brick is missing from it. The visitors like the house, only they say, “If only a brick had been put in this gap.” Lo! I am that brick. I am the last and completer of nabîs.) [Bukharî, Muslim]
(O ‘Alî! Whatever Hârûn was in relation to Mûsâ, you are the same in relation to me. But no nabî will come after me.) [Bukhârî, Muslim, Tirmudhî, Ibn Mâja, Imam-i Ahmad, Tabarânî]
Our master the Prophet is not only the rasûl of his time and of Arabia but also the rasûl of all people that will exist up until the end of the world and of the whole world. An âyah purports:
(We have sent you to all people only as a bringer of good tidings and as a warner, but most of people do not know.) [Sûrat-u Saba’, 28]
A hadîth-i sharîf purports: (I have been sent to all humankind.) [Muslim]

(We have sent you a rasûl from among you, who will recite Our âyât to you, who will purify you from every evil, who will teach you the Book and wisdom, and who will inform you about what you do not know.) [Sûrat-ul-Baqara, 151]
(This verse, too, proves that a Book was sent to a rasûl, not a nabî.)
After proclaiming that the Messenger of Allah is the last nabî, the Qur’ân al-karîm explains as follows the fact that the building of Islam has been completed:
(This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and approved for you Islam as the religion.) [Sûrat-ul-Mâ’ida, 3]
Now that Allahu ta’âlâ has completed His religion by sending His last nabî and rasûl and now that there is no deficiency left in the religion, looking for another religion and prophet means denying the Qur’ân al-karîm.
The 164th verse of Nisâ’ Sûra, which purports, “We also sent rasûls whose parables We have not related to you,” demonstrates that the number of rasûls has not been stated in the Qur’ân al-karîm. It is declared in a hadîth-i sharîf:
(There are 124 000 nabîs and 313 rasûls.) [Hakim]
This hadîth-i sharîf shows that rasûls, who brought Books, is fewer than nabîs in number. The reason why nabîs are more in number is that they promulgated the religions of rasûls.